However, unless your funds are already on an exchange, it would involve multiple steps, and you’d likely be better off using a bridge. If you have ETH on Ethereum Mainnet and you want to explore an alt L1 to try out their native dapps. You can use a bridge to transfer your ETH from Ethereum Mainnet to the alt L1. For example, someone wants to exchange Bitcoin for Ethereum ETH. For this to happen, you will need an exchange that transforms Bitcoin into Ethereum.

list of blockchain bridges

Bridges help blockchains propagate the ‘distributed ledgers’ beyond the local limits of a mesh network, creating seamless interconnections. Essentially, blockchain bridges aid in transferring data and digital assets between two blockchain networks, thereby enabling communication. Of course, both blockchains could have different protocols, smart contract rules, and governance structures, but the bridge allows both networks to communicate and share data safely. Blockchain bridges are systems that connect different blockchains and enable users to exchange one type of coin or token for another.

This is impossible to send directly because of the difference in the consensus protocol. However, with a bridge, the Ethereum wallet will receive a token “wrapped” by the blockchain bridge — converted to an Ethereum blockchain token. The Ethereum wallet will receive a “blockchain bridge” Solana token converted to an ERC-20 token. However, the receiving blockchains use a process known as “wrapping” to create compatible tokens to achieve this interoperability.


Therefore, two blockchains cannot communicate natively, meaning tokens and assets cannot move freely from one blockchain to another. This is where blockchain bridges come into the equation, as they are the middleware between two ecosystems. Blockchain bridges work just like the bridges we know in the physical world.

Crypto bridges are coming under attack – Protocol

Crypto bridges are coming under attack.

Posted: Mon, 18 Jul 2022 09:36:57 GMT [source]

When transferring a large amount of cryptocurrency, trust-based bridges can be a quick and cost-effective option. However, it is critical to understand that the primary concern of the federation members is to keep transactions running. With the growing number of blockchain protocols, it is nearly impossible not to transfer assets between them. However, blockchain is limited to the boundaries of its domain due to a lack of interoperability. This means Dogecoins cannot be used to make a transaction on the Bitcoin blockchain. The finance industry has seen significant shifts over the past few years with the growing popularity of cryptocurrency.

Liquidity Networks

The success of cryptocurrencies has prompted evangelists to propose that the next version of the internet, Web3, should also be driven by blockchain. Development platforms like Ethereum are already working towards making this a reality, creating tokenized applications like DeFi. But as Web3 development creates a complex ecosystem of blockchain scaling solutions, the number of blockchain protocols is also increasing. Bridges are crucial to onboarding users onto Ethereum L2s, and even for users who want to explore different ecosystems. However, given the risks involved in interacting with bridges, users must understand the trade-offs the bridges are making. Developers from different blockchain ecosystems to collaborate and build new platforms for the users.

For each chain pair, developers must deploy a new light client smart contract on both the source and destination chain, which is somewhere between O and O complexity . There are also significant speed drawbacks in optimistic models that rely on fraud proofs, which could increase latency up to 4 hours. Trustless bridges are decentralized bridges that rely on algorithms and smart contracts to operate. This bridge functions similarly to a real blockchain, with individual networks contributing to transaction validation.

list of blockchain bridges

The native cryptocurrency of the first blockchain is locked during this process, and a proportional amount of wrapped currency is minted on the second blockchain. When you need to transfer assets from one blockchain to another, you must use a bridge. This means a bridge is essentially an information exchanger between blockchains. Therefore, a bridge is a cryptocurrency revolution that allows for trading fluidity between blockchains.


This comes at the cost of security, however, since users are, by definition, relying on the security of the bridge rather than the source or destination chains. While most external validators today are trusted models, some are collateralized, of which a subset is used to insure end-users. Unfortunately, their insurance mechanisms are often reflexive; if a protocol token is used as collateral, there is an assumption that the dollar value of that token will be high enough to make users whole. Furthermore, if the collateral asset is different from the insured asset, there is also a dependency on an oracle price feed, so the security of the bridge could degrade to the security of the oracle.

  • In this case,Arbitrum has a native bridgethat can transfer ETH from Mainnet onto Arbitrum.
  • The finance industry has seen significant shifts over the past few years with the growing popularity of cryptocurrency.
  • This means trustless bridges allow users to keep control of their funds by utilizing smart contracts.
  • Trustless bridges are decentralized bridges that rely on algorithms and smart contracts to operate.
  • The bridge blocks that amount of coin in blockchain A to send this token from A to B.
  • The Ethereum wallet will receive a “blockchain bridge” Solana token converted to an ERC-20 token.
  • Users to access new platforms and leverage the benefits of different chains.

The disadvantage is that extending this functionality to other apps is difficult. There is usually a group of validators that monitor a “mailbox” address on the source chain and, upon consensus, perform an action on the destination chain. An asset transfer is typically done by locking up the asset in the mailbox and minting the equivalent amount of that asset on the destination chain. These are often bonded validators with a separate token as a security model. Web3 has evolved into an ecosystem of L1 blockchains and L2 scaling solutions, each designed with unique capabilities and trade-offs.

Summarizing The Design Tradeoffs

As the number of blockchains protocols increases, so does the demand to move assets across chains. Blockchain bridges allow users to use and enjoy various blockchain technologies without switching platforms. Unlike the federated model, a trustless bridge is entirely decentralized and operates via a network of agents that are not centrally governed. Just like public blockchains, anyone can join the network as an agent.

list of blockchain bridges

Furthermore, the best bridges will be the most secure, interconnected, fast, capital-efficient, cost-effective, and censorship-resistant. These are the properties that need to be maximized if we want to realize the vision of an “internet of blockchains”. While bridges unlock innovation for the blockchain ecosystem, they also pose serious risks if teams cut corners with research & development. The Poly Network hack has demonstrated the potential economic magnitude of vulnerabilities & attacks, and I expect this to get worse before it gets better.

Blockchain Bridges

Despite what individual communities believe, the reality is that the universe tends towards entropy, and the number of these networks will likely continue to increase into the future. Chain-specific is a blockchain bridge that typically handles simple operations such as locking and unlocking tokens in the source chain and knocking out any wrapped digital assets in the target chain. This bridge exists solely to provide access to a specific asset from a different network. These are frequently “wrapped” assets fully secured by the underlying assets held, whether custodian or non-custodian. Such bridges are the simplest to implement and serve as a flywheel for fluidity, though they have limited functionality and must be implemented in each target chain. However, a bridge mechanism is required to enable smart contract and data exchange, asset transfers, and other feedback between different blockchains.

However, trustless bridges can provide users with a greater sense of security and greater flexibility when moving cryptocurrency. This means trustless bridges allow users to keep control of their funds by utilizing smart contracts. Blockchain bridges are connections between two blockchain ecosystems. Just as a physical bridge connects two physical locations, a blockchain bridge integrates two different blockchain worlds running on similar or varying protocols. This connection allows the transfer of data and tokens between the ecosystems.

list of blockchain bridges

Blockchain bridges resolve scalability issues that popular blockchain networks like Ethereum often face, thus enabling instantaneous peer-to-peer transactions. Payments and settlements are not impacted by network congestion or traffic. Instead, workloads are transferred to lower congestion blockchains for instant processing.

Self check-in is similar to a trustless model as it removes the operator’s role and uses technology for its operations. Users always remain in control of their data and don’t have to trust a third party with their private information. Ensure to check the CCTIP Blog daily for articles that help you understand cryptocurrency and blockchain technology tenets.

While it is a highly fragmented and competitive landscape for bridge builders, teams should remain disciplined in prioritizing security over time-to-market. For Ethereum to scale and keep up with demand, it has required rollups. Alternatively, L1s like Solana and Avalanche are designed differently to enable higher throughput but at the cost of decentralization. Tokens are not transferred but are burned on the source blockchain and minted on the destination blockchain.

Agents are incentivized to ensure bridge transactions are correctly validated. This type of market structure necessitates the need for interoperability between these distinct networks. Many developers have realized this, and the last year has seen an explosion in blockchain bridges that attempt to unify an increasingly fragmented landscape. However, because blockchain bridges are still in their early stages of development, there are some security concerns. As a result of these security concerns, security breaches on various blockchain bridges have occurred, resulting in the loss of assets.

Categories Of Blockchain Bridges

There is a requirement for some actor to “relay” the block headers and proofs. While it is possible for a user to “self-relay” transactions, there does exist a liveness assumption that relayers will continuously forward data. All blockchains are developed in isolated environments, with different rules and consensus mechanisms inside each network.

If not trusted, these bridges are also the least capital efficient because they need to scale collateral proportional with the economic throughput they are facilitating. Light clients & relays are also strong with statefulness because header relay systems could pass around any kind of data. They are also strong with security because they do not require additional trust assumptions, although there is a liveness assumption because a relayer is still required to transmit the information. These are also the most capital-efficient bridges because they do not require any capital lockup whatsoever.

You use the bridge to send a token from blockchain A to blockchain B, and you specify how many tokens you want to send. Token network fund with the thesis of embedding cryptoeconomic incentives into everything; transactions, computation, storage, prediction, power. Many bridging solutions adopt models between these two extremes with varying degrees of trustlessness. Manual checkpoints are similar to a trusted model as it depends upon a third party, i.e., the officials, for its operations. As a user, you trust the officials to make the right decisions and use your private information correctly. Users to access new platforms and leverage the benefits of different chains.

Web3 And The Graph Data And Applications

A Bitcoin to Ethereum bridge, such as tBTC, makes this action occur seamlessly. Let’s say you have ETH on Ethereum Mainnet but want cheaper transaction fees to explore different dapps. By bridging your ETH from the Mainnet to an Ethereum L2 rollup, you can enjoy lower transaction fees.

DApps the biggest beneficiaries of blockchain bridges, accomplishing complex transactions in lesser hops and at a faster rate. Generalized blockchain bridge protocols are explicitly created to transport data across multiple blockchains. Hence, because a single project integration grants access to the entire ecosystem within the bridge, this design will have a significant network effect. However, this bridge has the disadvantage of sacrificing decentralization and security in favor of scalability.

Blockchain bridges are one of the many emerging advancements that are helping improve the blockchain experience that will help increase the technology’s adoption rate. This is akin to a peer-to-peer network where each node acts as a “router” that holds an “inventory” of assets of both the source and destination chain. These networks usually leverage the security of the underlying blockchain; What is a Blockchain Bridge through the use of locking and dispute mechanisms, users are guaranteed that routers cannot run away with user funds. Because of this, liquidity networks like Connext are likely a safer option for users who are transferring large amounts of value. Actors monitor events on the source chain and generate cryptographic inclusion proofs about past events that were recorded on that chain.

In this case,Arbitrum has a native bridgethat can transfer ETH from Mainnet onto Arbitrum. To create the basic structure for this task, you need a bridge between Blockchain A and B. Bridges exist to connect blockchains, allowing the transfer of information and tokens between them. One recent hack was Solana’s Wormhole bridge, where 120k wETH ($325 million USD) was stolen during the hack.

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